Advanced diagnostic platforms to identify viruses can help patients with severe lower respiratory tract infections avoid unnecessary diagnostic testing, reduce antibiotic use, and initiate antiviral therapy.
To investigate what impact antibiotic treatment duration has on CAP outcomes, researchers from the Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University conducted a search of various databases for studies comparing the safety and efficacy of treatment regimens lasting ≤6 days (short) and ≥7 days (long).
Investigators examined the incidence and outcomes of pneumonia in patients with acute ischemic stroke and type 2 diabetes.
Most deaths related to community-acquired pneumonia that occurred at tertiary-case hospitals were not preventable.
The real-world effectiveness of PCV13 vaccine in preventing hospitalization for vaccine-type community-acquired pneumonia was assessed.
Although clinical presentation was similar in both community-acquired pneumonia and non-pneumonia exacerbations, CRP, glucose, and leukocytes were higher in the former vs the latter.
Early clinical response rates were similar across PORT risk class subgroups in patients with community-acquired bacterial pneumonia when treated with omadacycline or moxifloxacin.
PCV13, marketed as Prevnar 13, was evaluated in a test-negative case-control study in real-world conditions where patients were administered pneumococcal vaccination as advised by their healthcare providers.
In the LEAP 2 study (N=738), patients with moderate CABP received either oral lefamulin 600mg every 12 hours for 5 days or oral moxifloxacin 400mg once daily for 7 days.
Clinicians should consider these findings when using atypical antipsychotics in patients at risk for pneumonia.
Researchers have developed a novel algorithm to identify hypersensitivity pneumonitis.
Lung ultrasound was more effective in diagnosing pediatric community-acquired pneumonia than chest radiography.
Clinical presentation and outcomes in HIV-infected patients with Legionella pneumonia did not differ from patients without HIV infection.
Low-dose computed tomography may assist clinicians in modifying diagnosis of elderly patients who are admitted with suspected pneumonia.
A higher proportion of patients with COPD and a blood eosinophil count of ≥0.34×109/L had elevated markers of low-grade systemic inflammation regardless of forced expiratory volume in 1 second.
The risk for death in patients with community-acquired pneumonia who were given mechanical ventilation does not seem to be affected by the presence of acute respiratory distress syndrome.
Researchers found increased myocardial infarction rates during the week after Streptococcus pneumoniae and influenza infections.
Differences in serum inflammatory markers may exist between patients with community-acquired pneumonia who present within the first 48 hours of symptom onset vs those who present later.
Use of prophylactic antimicrobial therapy was not associated with a reduction in mortality or transfer to critical care compared with patients managed with supportive care only.
Adults with community-acquired pneumonia that is visualized on CT scan but not on concurrent chest radiograph have similar pathogens, disease severity, and outcomes as patients who had pneumonia confirmed via chest radiograph.
Interventional reduction of the angiopoietin-1/angiopoietin-2 ratio may provide therapeutic perspective for prevention of acute lung injury in pneumonia.
Children with asthma who experience chronic oral glucocorticoid exposure may have significant morbidities, including adrenal suppression, recurrent pneumonia, and behavioral problems.
Researchers retrospectively analyzed data from patients hospitalized with pneumococcal community-acquired pneumonia to determine risk factors for pneumococcal bacteremia.
As a result of activating the inflammatory-immune system, pneumonia may trigger cardiovascular complications.
Researchers assessed the timing of azithromycin administration for pediatric community-acquired pneumonia to determine its effectiveness in the setting of macrolide resistance.
Researchers found the strongest link between prescription opioid use and the risk for invasive pneumococcal disease was present in individuals using long-acting, high-dose, or highly potent formulations.
Long-acting, high-potency, and high-dose opioids were associated with an increased risk for invasive pneumococcal disease.
Invasive mechanical ventilation in patients with severe community-acquired pneumonia appeared to increase their mortality risk.
Nasopharyngeal samples collected from young children with acute otitis media were analyzed for S pneumoniae, H influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis and compared before and after PCV13 introduction.
Patient, practice, and provider characteristics are associated with inappropriate antimicrobial prescribing in the outpatient setting.
The FDA approved the supplemental New Drug Application for Avycaz to treat adults with hospital-acquired or ventilator-associated bacterial pneumonia.
The preoperative physiotherapy intervention cut the incidence of postoperative pulmonary complications by 50%.
Procalcitonin may decrease mortality rates in patients with acute respiratory infections, including pneumonia.
Short-term incidence of leukemia, lymphoma, and brain cancer may be higher in children who were hospitalized with pneumonia.
Mortality from severe pneumonia may be significantly reduced with corticosteroids.
Non-ventilator hospital-acquired pneumonia is a significant burden in US acute care hospitals and poses a risk to nonelderly, non-intensive unit patients.
AuroMedics Pharma announced a voluntary recall of 1 lot of Linezolid injection after a batch found contained mold.
Researchers identified 4 specific symptoms that could be the basis for a pneumonia diagnosis.
Educational campaigns regarding the value of vaccines should integrate social psychological considerations with health communication principles.
The ability of machine learning programs to diagnose medical conditions and predict outcomes is discussed in an opinion article.
No single finding appears to reliably predict a pneumonia diagnosis in pediatric patients younger than 5 years of age.
The 2006 CHEST management algorithms for acute, subacute, and chronic cough appear to be useful in treating adults globally.
Prophylactic antibiotics administered to patients who were mechanically ventilated reduced the rate of ventilator-associated pneumonia.
In contrast to previous study findings, inhaled corticosteroids do not appear to increase risk for pneumonia in patients with COPD with moderate airflow limitation.
Strictly following empirical antimicrobial treatment guidelines in patients with hospital-acquired or ventilator-associated pneumonia may result in overtreatment with antibiotics.
Study results indicate that delafloxacin has potent in-vitro activity against most common pathogens seen in community-acquired pneumonia.
Combination antibiotic therapy with a macrolide improves hospital length of stay in patients with severe community-acquired pneumonia.
Researchers developed a clinical tool to predict prolonged hospital stays in patients with pediatric community-acquired complicated pneumonia.
Low education and low income are linked to lower uptakes of PCV13 in minorities 65 years and older.
Investigators found that macrolides correlated with lower odds of treatment failure in patients younger than 5 with CAP.
Using serum procalcitonin levels to diagnose and manage bacterial pneumonia decreases length of hospital stay.
Fewer than half of patients with asthma have received a pneumococcal vaccination.
While the newest high-valent PCV10 and PCV13 vaccines are effective in preventing IPD caused by the serotypes within the vaccines, breakthrough patterns of conversion to non-PCV13 serotypes are emerging.
Early time to positivity of blood culture in patients with bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia predicted the risk for invasive mechanical ventilation.
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is associated with long-term risk of pneumonia, especially in the younger population and in patients who have been treated with proton pump inhibitors.
Three cases of community-acquired pneumonia were reported in otherwise healthy adults.
Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, particularly with exacerbations, have an increased risk for diabetes development.
Men have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease for more than 5 years following either sepsis or pneumonia.
Recent research suggests that perioperative and postoperative pulmonary rehabilitation improves outcomes in patients undergoing thoracic surgery.
Patients had similar outcomes with standardized treatment for community-acquired pneumococcal pneumonia regardless of HIV status.
An estimated 55% to 85% of hospital-acquired pneumonia infections involve gram-negative bacteria, while 20% to 30% of cases involve gram-positive cocci.
Clinical symptoms of pneumonia should be identified quickly in pediatric patients to prevent inappropriate therapy.
Pneumonia primarily affects young children, smokers, adults 65 years and older, and people with COPD.
Nearly 7000 patients with community-acquired pneumonia were examined using updated Sepsis-3 Task Force criteria.
Researchers analyzed data from hospitalized Medicare patients with acute MI, heart failure, or pneumonia between 2008 and 2014.
A large cohort study of critically ill patients with varicella-zoster virus-related community-acquired pneumonia found that significant morbidity and mortality are associated with the disease.
Chlorhexidine oral rinse solution 0.05% as an adjunctive intervention in daily oral hygiene care in nursing home residents does not reduce the rate of aspiration pneumonia.
Between 2002 and 2012, in-hospital mortality rates for aspiration pneumonia dropped across the US.
Patients with HIV who develop CAP do not need special treatment in comparison to healthy individuals according to a Barcelona study.
Approximately 22.1% adults do not respond to initial antibiotic treatment for community-acquired pneumonia, according to new research presented at ATS 2017.
Patients with asthma have an increased risk of pneumonia when using inhaled corticosteroids, including budesonide and fluticasone.
The American Association for Thoracic Surgery released guidelines for the management of empyema.
Despite current guidelines recommending amoxicillin in most children with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), macrolides and broad-spectrum antibiotics continue to be prescribed for outpatient CAP.
Risk of Pneumonia and other serious infections is similar among pregnant women with systemic inflammatory conditions using steroids, TNF inhibitors, and non-biologics.
Higher-potency statins increase the risk of hospitalization for community-acquired pneumonia.
Lung ultrasounds present an effective alternative to diagnosing pneumonia.
Patients with Alzheimer's disease undergoing monotherapy with memantine have a higher risk of pneumonia.
Hospitalization rates for parapneumonic empyema in US children fell after introducing the 13 valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine PCV13.
Switching from intravenous to oral antibiotics in patients with healthcare-associated pneumonia was found to be safe.