Cynthia F. Bowman, Author at Pulmonology Advisor

Cynthia F. Bowman

All articles by Cynthia F. Bowman


At a Glance Neuroblastoma is a malignant tumor of post ganglionic sympathetic neurons that presents in children, usually before 3 years of age, and is the second most common solid tumor of childhood (after brain tumors). It results in the over production of catecholamines, but hypertension or signs of increased sympathetic activity are uncommon. Most…

Thyroid Cancer (TC)

At a Glance Cancer arising from the thyroid gland’s unique cells (i.e., follicular or para-follicular C-cells) comprises less than 2% of all cancers, but accounts for 32,000-37,000 annual new cases of cancer in the United States and 90% of all endocrine cancers. It occurs predominantly in women (3:1) and appears in this incidence because of…

Pheochromocytoma (PCC)

At a Glance Pheochromocytomas (PCC) are rare, potentially life threatening catecholamine secreting tumors of chromaffin cells, most often arising from the adrenal medulla (90%) but also sometimes from the extra-adrenal sympathochromaffin cells (10-15%; called paragangliomas in those sites; most often in the abdomen). Most PCCs (90%) are benign, but up to 10% may be malignant,…

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