Despite recommendations made by the American Academy of Pediatrics, the use of radiography in pediatric bronchiolitis has not decreased.
Factors predictive of escalated care in infant bronchiolitis include oxygen saturation <90%, nasal flaring/grunting, apnea, retractions, and age 2 months or younger.
Bronchiolitis obliterans is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the pulmonary transplant population with ≥50% of patients who receive a lung transplant developing the condition within 5 years.
Pfizer has terminated the ALLOZITHRO trial (N=480) due to this increased risk.
The initiative helped reduce the ordering of chest radiographs, respiratory viral testing, and bronchodilators.
High-flow oxygen therapy may be more effective in preventing care escalation in infants with bronchiolitis compared with standard oxygen therapy.
Nebulized hypertonic saline may decrease length of hospital stay and improve clinical severity scores in infants with acute bronchiolitis.
The use of evidence-based supportive therapies varies by hospital site for infants with bronchiolitis,