The following article is a part of conference coverage from the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Virtual Annual Meeting, being held virtually from February 26 to March 1, 2021. The team at Pulmonology Advisor will be reporting on the latest news and research conducted by leading experts in the field. Check back for more from the AAAAI 2021 Virtual Annual Meeting.
Compared with the absence of asthma, the presence of asthma is associated with a comparable risk of hospitalization and use of mechanical ventilation, and a lower risk of mortality in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Researchers conducted a multicenter, matched cohort study using data from the Mass General Brigham Health Care System (MGBHCS) in Boston, Massachusetts, and presented the results at the American Association of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology (AAAAI) 2021 Virtual Annual Meeting held from February 26 to March 1, 2021.
Investigators sought to examine the link between asthma and severe COVID-19 infection, which is of key significance as the pandemic continues. Adults (≥18 years of age) who were seen at MGBHCS between March 4, 2020, and July 2, 2020, participated in the study. Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, interstitial lung disease, or cystic fibrosis were excluded. Asthma was defined as 2 more diagnosis codes for asthma and the filling of an asthma prescription in the year prior to a patient’s developing COVID-19.
Up to 5 comparators without asthma were matched to each patient with asthma with respect to age (within 5 years), sex, and date of positive COVID-19 test (within 7 days). The primary study outcomes included hospitalization, mechanical ventilation, and death. All of the participants were followed for these outcomes from their COVID-19 diagnosis until July 2, 2020.
Of the 562 patients with asthma, 199 were hospitalized, 15 received mechanical ventilation, and 7 died. Of the 2686 matched comparators, 487 were hospitalized, 107 received mechanical ventilation, and 69 died. The adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) among patients with asthma were as follows: for hospitalization: HR, 0.99 (95% CI, 0.80-1.22); for mechanical ventilation: HR, 0.69 (95% CI, 0.36- 1.29; and for death: HR, 0.30 (95% CI, 0.11-0.800.
The researchers concluded that based on the results of this study, both the presence of and the absence of asthma are linked to comparable risks of hospitalization and use of mechanical ventilation in individuals with COVID-19. The presence of asthma, however, is associated with a lower risk for mortality among individuals with COVID-19.
Robinson L, Wang L, Fu X, et al. COVID-19 severity in asthma patients: a multicenter matched cohort study. Presented at: the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology (AAAAI) Virtual Annual Meeting; February 26-March 1, 2021. Abstract L22.
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