The following article is a part of conference coverage from the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Annual Meeting, being held in Phoenix, Arizona, from February 25 to 28, 2022. The team at Pulmonology Advisor will be reporting on the latest news and research conducted by leading experts in the field. Check back for more from the AAAAI 2022 Virtual Annual Meeting.
In a recent study, individuals on active immunosuppression did not demonstrate a positive response to RNA-based COVID-19 vaccines with respect to antibody production, thus supporting the continued need for these patients to be closely monitored and to be vigilant in protecting themselves from exposure to COVID-19. These were among findings reported by researchers at the American Association of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology (AAAAI) 2022 Annual Meeting, held in Phoenix, Arizona, from February 25 to 28.
The presentation reported on what researchers described as a “quality improvement project” assessing antibody production in response to an RNA-based COVID-19 vaccine in immunocompromised individuals. The project’s goal was to determine the level of active immunity among these individuals so that better decisions could be made with respect to medical management.
A retrospective chart review was conducted between January and August 2021 involving 18 participants who were immunocompromised and had no history of infection with COVID-19. Among these participants, 7 had common variable immunodeficiency (CVID), 4 had specific antibody deficiency (SAD), and 7 were receiving immunosuppression for a number of reasons, including having undergone a solid organ transplant or having an autoimmune disease.
All 18 individuals had received either the Moderna (56% of participants) or the Pfizer BioNTech (44% of participants) coronavirus vaccine. All study participants had been assessed for postvaccination immunoglobulin (Ig)G antibodies against the spike protein (S1 at least 2 weeks after they had received their second vaccination.
Overall, 33.3% of the participants exhibited positive antibodies. Among individuals with SAD, 75% had positive antibodies detected; in contrast, positive antibodies were detected in only 42.9% of participants with CVID. Notably, none of the patients who were receiving active immunosuppression exhibited a positive antibody response.
The investigators concluded that the findings from this study support the continued need for close monitoring of immunocompromised participants who have been vaccinated against COVID-19 and aggressive precautions in this patient population.
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Ghannam S, Fernandez J. COVID antibody production following vaccination in immunocompromised subjects – a quality improvement project. Presented at: American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology (AAAAI) 2022 Annual Meeting; February 25–28, 2022; Phoenix, AZ. Abstract 195.