Repeated exposure to the influenza virus affects antibody quantity and quality, and strains selected for seasonal vaccines may not provide coverage sufficient for individuals frequently infected and/or vaccinated.
Antipseudomonal combination therapy has shown poorer efficacy than antipseudomonal monotherapy in individuals with suspected pseudomonal pneumonia.
Elderly patients who have been inoculated with the influenza vaccine and who also use a statin are at a greater risk for medically attended acute respiratory illness.
The burden of childhood and infant pneumonia can be effectively reduced through the use of the pneumococcal Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine.
PCV13 in adults age <65 years with diabetes could reduce a substantial number of pneumonia hospitalizations.
NasoVAX, an adenovirus-based intranasal flu vaccine, shows tolerability, safety, and higher cellular immune response compared to an injectable vaccine.
When compared to placebo, baloxavir marboxil was associated with reduced risk of influenza complications and faster recovery.
Findings may highlight physician difficulty explaining to patients why antibiotics are not required.
The use of fluoroquinolones in stable patients with community-acquired pneumonia can be reduced with stewardship programs that share antibiotic use data and provide guidance for step-down therapy.
The FDA has approved Nuzyra for the treatment of adult patients with CABP and acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections.
For patients with CAP, antibiotic regimens including a fluoroquinolone may reduce mortality risk by 1-2% compared to beta-lactams and cephalosporins alone.
Active Choice Intervention Effective in Increasing Influenza Vaccination Rates at Primary Care Practices
Influenza vaccination rates decline as the clinic day progresses.
Patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome and confirmed influenza diagnosis treated ≤6 hours with oseltamivir had reduced length of hospital stay and a lower rate of mortality.
Wide variations in influenza vaccine coverage have been noted across healthcare personnel based on occupation and worksite.
Previous antibiotic use and mechanical invasive ventilation were risk factors for multidrug-resistant pathogens in hospital-associated or ventilator-associated pneumonia.
Arikayce is intended for oral inhalation use and is administered via the Lamira Nebulizer System only.
The 2017 to 2018 flu strains hit the very young and elderly especially hard.
Mandatory genetic testing may also constitute an undue threat to employee autonomy and privacy.
Patients with community-acquired pneumonia who received corticosteroids had a lower incidence of myocardial infarction compared with those who did not.
The Breakthrough designation follows an FDA examination of results from a Phase 2 randomized, double-blind trial which evaluated the safety and immunogenicity of the treatment in adults aged 60 to 64 years.
Vaccination rates decreased throughout the day; with intervention, there was a similar increase throughout day.
The data showed matched odds ratio for current vs past use of PPIs to be 0.88 (95% CI, 0.36 to 2.16) when comparing cases and their controls for community-acquired pneumonia. With regard to lower respiratory tract infections, the matched odds ratio between cases and their controls was 1.13 (95% CI, 0.87 to 1.48).
Factors predictive of escalated care in infant bronchiolitis include oxygen saturation <90%, nasal flaring/grunting, apnea, retractions, and age 2 months or younger.
The full findings from the study will be presented at a future scientific conference; Merck plans to include the data in a supplemental New Drug Application for Zerbaxa which will be submitted to the Food and Drug Administration.
New York City health officials say passengers had influenza or other common cold viruses.
Corticosteroids should not be used concomitantly with antiviral therapy in patients with influenza pneumonia.
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the 2017-2018 flu season was one of the most severe - excluding pandemics - on record.
Baloxavir had a median time to alleviation of symptoms vs placebo, and a similar alleviation time as oseltamivir.
Influenza proved to be an independent risk factor for invasive pulmonary aspergillosis.
The clinical prediction tool that uses confusion, uremia, elevated respiratory rate, and hypotension in community-acquired pneumonia demonstrated an association with ICU admittance.
An algorithm based on risk factors for resistant pathogens and illness severity can simplify pneumonia treatment, improve the accuracy of empiric therapy, reduce mortality, and help avoid overusing broad spectrum therapy in some patients.
Rate of incident pneumonia increased in second year after initiating treatment with proton pump inhibitors.
Coal workers' pneumoconiosis deaths significantly decreased from 1999 to 2016 for residents ≥25 years.
Antibiotics were helpful in curing chronic wet cough in children.
In general, routine annual vaccination is recommended for all patients ≥6 months of age who have no contraindications.
An investigation into an outbreak of NDM-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae across 2 Belgian hospitals identified an outpatient clinic as the likely common site of transfer and highlights the importance of infection control measures in outpatient settings.
Bronchiolitis obliterans is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the pulmonary transplant population with ≥50% of patients who receive a lung transplant developing the condition within 5 years.
The Committee's recommendation was based on data from the omadacycline global development program that included nearly 2000 adults in three Phase 3 studies.
The recommendation was supported by materials developed from the ALIS New Drug Application (NDA), which included data from the CONVERT study.
Hospitalization risk was also reduced for RA patients who received influenza vaccination.
Inappropriate antibiotic prescriptions were highest among urgent care facilities (45.7%), with emergency departments (24.6%), medical offices (17.0%), and retail clinics (14.4%) following.
Immune priming with seasonal H1N1 viruses earlier in life and egg-adaptation in vaccines can impact antibody responses following influenza vaccination.
Most children who died of pneumococcus and Haemophilus influenzae type b presented with pneumonia.
Advanced diagnostic platforms to identify viruses can help patients with severe lower respiratory tract infections avoid unnecessary diagnostic testing, reduce antibiotic use, and initiate antiviral therapy.
To investigate what impact antibiotic treatment duration has on CAP outcomes, researchers from the Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University conducted a search of various databases for studies comparing the safety and efficacy of treatment regimens lasting ≤6 days (short) and ≥7 days (long).
Investigators examined the incidence and outcomes of pneumonia in patients with acute ischemic stroke and type 2 diabetes.
The New Drug Application for baloxavir marboxil is supported by results from the Phase 3 CAPSTONE-1 study (N=1436) which examined the effects of a single dose of baloxavir marboxil vs placebo or oseltamivir 75mg twice daily for 5 days.
Most deaths related to community-acquired pneumonia that occurred at tertiary-case hospitals were not preventable.
Respiratory pathogens were associated with an increased risk for treatment failure in children with asthma exacerbations.
The researchers argued that outpatient antibiotic stewardship efforts must be strengthened to eliminate antibiotic treatment for viral upper respiratory infections and acute bronchitis.
The real-world effectiveness of PCV13 vaccine in preventing hospitalization for vaccine-type community-acquired pneumonia was assessed.
Although clinical presentation was similar in both community-acquired pneumonia and non-pneumonia exacerbations, CRP, glucose, and leukocytes were higher in the former vs the latter.
Early clinical response rates were similar across PORT risk class subgroups in patients with community-acquired bacterial pneumonia when treated with omadacycline or moxifloxacin.
PCV13, marketed as Prevnar 13, was evaluated in a test-negative case-control study in real-world conditions where patients were administered pneumococcal vaccination as advised by their healthcare providers.
The advisory comes early as physicians are currently placing vaccine orders.
In the LEAP 2 study (N=738), patients with moderate CABP received either oral lefamulin 600mg every 12 hours for 5 days or oral moxifloxacin 400mg once daily for 7 days.
Clinicians should consider these findings when using atypical antipsychotics in patients at risk for pneumonia.
Researchers have developed a novel algorithm to identify hypersensitivity pneumonitis.
Lung ultrasound was more effective in diagnosing pediatric community-acquired pneumonia than chest radiography.
Clinical presentation and outcomes in HIV-infected patients with Legionella pneumonia did not differ from patients without HIV infection.
Low-dose computed tomography may assist clinicians in modifying diagnosis of elderly patients who are admitted with suspected pneumonia.
A high impact was seen, especially when the vaccine uptake was optimally distributed across age groups.
A higher proportion of patients with COPD and a blood eosinophil count of ≥0.34×109/L had elevated markers of low-grade systemic inflammation regardless of forced expiratory volume in 1 second.
This updated Committee Opinion includes more recent data on the safety and efficacy of influenza vaccination during pregnancy, as well as recommendations for treatment and postexposure chemoprophylaxis.
Adult caretaker influenza vaccination cocooning programs can prove beneficial and financially successful in private practice models where external funding is limited or not available.
During the cold and flu season, the use and over-dosing of paracetamol is common, and may partially be driven by higher use of over-the-counter combination medications for the treatment of upper respiratory cold/flu symptoms.
Among children there was an increased risk for acute respiratory illness caused by noninfluenza respiratory pathogens following influenza vaccination compared to unvaccinated children during the same period.
The risk for death in patients with community-acquired pneumonia who were given mechanical ventilation does not seem to be affected by the presence of acute respiratory distress syndrome.
Researchers found increased myocardial infarction rates during the week after Streptococcus pneumoniae and influenza infections.
Researchers assessed the relationship between prevention of RSV in preterm infants and the frequency of subsequent wheeze in childhood.
Higher serum bactericidal activity following immunization with PRP-CRM197 reflected superior short-term and long-term seroprotective effects compared with immunization with PRP-T.
Immunogenicity of RIV4 similar to that of inactivated vaccine, although responses to B Victoria were low with both.
Differences in serum inflammatory markers may exist between patients with community-acquired pneumonia who present within the first 48 hours of symptom onset vs those who present later.
Use of prophylactic antimicrobial therapy was not associated with a reduction in mortality or transfer to critical care compared with patients managed with supportive care only.
Further research on rapid tests is warranted, as industry-sponsored research tends to favor the industry's product and affects how physicians practice medicine.
Adults with community-acquired pneumonia that is visualized on CT scan but not on concurrent chest radiograph have similar pathogens, disease severity, and outcomes as patients who had pneumonia confirmed via chest radiograph.
Despite 8 of the 10 flights taking place during influenza season, results of quantitative polymerase chain reaction assays for 18 common respiratory viruses were all negative.
Interventional reduction of the angiopoietin-1/angiopoietin-2 ratio may provide therapeutic perspective for prevention of acute lung injury in pneumonia.
There was no significant correlation with suicide for oseltamavir exposure or for influenza diagnosis alone.
Acetaminophen use and overdosing increases during cold and flu season.
Children with asthma who experience chronic oral glucocorticoid exposure may have significant morbidities, including adrenal suppression, recurrent pneumonia, and behavioral problems.
The CDC's ACIP has voted in favor of renewing the recommendation for the use of live attenuated influenza vaccine.
Researchers retrospectively analyzed data from patients hospitalized with pneumococcal community-acquired pneumonia to determine risk factors for pneumococcal bacteremia.
Cardiac surgery during influenza season is an independent risk factor for acute respiratory distress syndrome.
Investigators sought to determine the association between maternal vaccination and infant mortality.
As a result of activating the inflammatory-immune system, pneumonia may trigger cardiovascular complications.
Researchers found the strongest link between prescription opioid use and the risk for invasive pneumococcal disease was present in individuals using long-acting, high-dose, or highly potent formulations.
Influenza A viruses have predominated the 2017 to 2018 season with a vaccine effectiveness between 25% and 67%.
Airborne influenza viruses may be safely and effectively eradicated with continuous low doses of far ultraviolet C light.
Long-acting, high-potency, and high-dose opioids were associated with an increased risk for invasive pneumococcal disease.
The recommended childhood and adolescent immunization schedule for the United States has been issued for 2018.
Invasive mechanical ventilation in patients with severe community-acquired pneumonia appeared to increase their mortality risk.
Nasopharyngeal samples collected from young children with acute otitis media were analyzed for S pneumoniae, H influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis and compared before and after PCV13 introduction.
Patient, practice, and provider characteristics are associated with inappropriate antimicrobial prescribing in the outpatient setting.
The FDA approved the supplemental New Drug Application for Avycaz to treat adults with hospital-acquired or ventilator-associated bacterial pneumonia.
The preoperative physiotherapy intervention cut the incidence of postoperative pulmonary complications by 50%.
Procalcitonin may decrease mortality rates in patients with acute respiratory infections, including pneumonia.
Patients who received provider-ordered influenza testing were more likely to be younger and present with fever and "influenza-like illness."
Influenza increased the risk for acute myocardial infarction within 1 year before and 1 year after the infection.
Short-term incidence of leukemia, lymphoma, and brain cancer may be higher in children who were hospitalized with pneumonia.