To investigate the safety of influenza vaccination during hospitalization, researchers from Kaiser Permanente assessed the health records of >250,000 patients, 6 months of age and older, who were hospitalized during any of the 3 flu seasons from 2011 to 2014 and were admitted and discharged between September 1 and March 31.
Influenza-positive patients have higher rates of crude mortality and critical illness vs influenza-negative patients.
Children with croup who were given glucocorticoids had reduced symptoms at 2 through 24 hours.
Quadrivalent live attenuated influenza vaccine less effective than inactivated vaccine for influenza A/H1N1pdm09.
In patients with heart failure, influenza infection is associated with increased in-hospital morbidity and mortality.
The number of clinical pneumonia episodes in children younger than 5 years of age was reduced by 22% in developing countries.
The patient, who had a history significant for cerebral palsy, seizures, and chronic constipation, had presented complaining of 3 days of fever, nausea, vomiting, and anorexia.
Adults hospitalized for pneumonia who received an influenza vaccination during their stay were less likely to seroconvert if they had diabetes, bacterial detection, baseline seropositive titers for influenza B, or influenza vaccination in the previous season.
Adults with influenza were more likely to be hospitalized if they were underweight or morbidly obese compared with normal-weight adults.
Rapid molecular assays should be used to improve influenza diagnosis and antivirals should begin as soon as possible.
Nabriva Therapeutics announced the submission of 2 NDAs to the FDA for the oral and IV formulations of lefamulin for the treatment of community-acquired bacterial pneumonia.
A marked and rapid reduction in PCV13 serotype, the most common antibiotic-nonsusceptible S pneumoniae, carriage was observed in both ethnic populations included in this study.
Previous results stated that Legionella pneumonia characteristics may not differ between individuals with HIV and individuals who do not have HIV.
Patients with voriconazole-resistant invasive aspergillosis have a higher mortality rate compared with patients with voriconazole-susceptible infection.
Black adolescents have lower odds of receiving influenza vaccination than white adolescents.
The trial analyzed the antibody response of 103 asthmatic patients to the seasonal influenza vaccine.
In older, hospitalized adults, respiratory syncytial virus may be associated with greater morbidity and mortality compared with influenza.
Patients undergoing evaluation for ventilator-associated pneumonia who had an alveolar neutrophil percentage 90% for bacterial pneumonia.
Increases in the relative rates of culture negative pneumonia that required hospitalization or emergency department visits were significantly associated with increased concentrations of fine particulate air pollution.
A study published in Circulation has found a reduced risk of cardiovascular (CV) death in heart failure patients when they are given routine influenza vaccinations.
Treating severe community-acquired pneumonia with a combination of corticosteroids and antibiotics may be a cost-effective strategy.
Invasive pneumococcal disease was significantly higher in premature infants than in infants born at term.
A meta-analysis of case-control studies supports the use of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in children as it protects against serotype 3.
Compared with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, nonhoneycomb hypersensitivity pneumonitis phenotypes are associated with greater improvements in percent-predicted forced vital capacity.
Statin use did not modify the effect of vaccination on influenza in adults ≥45 years.
The new 60-question Lung Transplant Quality of Life survey measures symptoms, health perceptions, functioning, and well-being.
Investigators examined whether influenza is an independent risk factor for the development of acute myocardial infarction.
Patients with bacterial pneumonia are at higher risk for major adverse cardiovascular events within 90 days compared with patients with viral pneumonia.
Hands can be vehicles for transmission of pneumococcus and lead to acquisition of nasopharyngeal colonization.
In adult patients, pooled estimates of sensitivity and specificity were generated for 4 clinical features: paroxysmal cough, posttussive vomiting, inspiratory whoop, and absence of fever.
The risk of having a healthcare-associated infection was 16% lower in 2015 than in 2011.
Despite recommendations made by the American Academy of Pediatrics, the use of radiography in pediatric bronchiolitis has not decreased.
Seasonal influenza activity was also found to be low in the Southern Hemisphere.
The CHEST Expert Cough Panel agreed on cough, dyspnea, pleural pain, sweating, shivers, aches, temperature of ≥38°C, tachypnea, and new and localizing chest examination signs as clinical symptoms as criteria suggestive of pneumonia in outpatient adults.
Survey finds variance in provider knowledge of adult pneumococcal vaccine recommendations.
To better understand the influence of prior-season vaccination on subsequent influenza vaccine effectiveness, researchers conducted a multiseason, test-negative case-control study among vaccinated children 2-17 years old recruited during 3 influenza seasons (2013-2014, 2014-2015, and 2015-2016).
Significant associations were seen between increased average prenatal carbon monoxide and reduced time to peak tidal expiratory flow to expiratory time, increased respiratory rate, and increased minute ventilation.
Time-series analysis based on geographic location revealed positive significant associations between asthma and influenza hospitalizations in Brooklyn and Manhattan.
The FDA has approved the use of Afluria and Afluria Quadrivalent for use in patients ≥6 months old.
"This is the first new antiviral flu treatment with a novel mechanism of action approved by the FDA in nearly 20 years," said FDA Commissioner Scott Gottlieb, MD.
Patients with pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial infections were more likely to have used inhaled corticosteroids than patients with other airway disease.
There were reductions in influenza cases, deaths, and costs by adding pharmacies during influenza epidemics.
Fewer than half of women who were pregnant during peak influenza vaccination period in 2017 to 2018 were vaccinated.
Larger cities with higher base transmission potentials have more diffuse influenza epidemics.
Influenza-related hospitalizations were reduced by 40% over 6 flu seasons.
Repeated exposure to the influenza virus affects antibody quantity and quality, and strains selected for seasonal vaccines may not provide coverage sufficient for individuals frequently infected and/or vaccinated.
Antipseudomonal combination therapy has shown poorer efficacy than antipseudomonal monotherapy in individuals with suspected pseudomonal pneumonia.
Elderly patients who have been inoculated with the influenza vaccine and who also use a statin are at a greater risk for medically attended acute respiratory illness.
The burden of childhood and infant pneumonia can be effectively reduced through the use of the pneumococcal Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine.
PCV13 in adults age <65 years with diabetes could reduce a substantial number of pneumonia hospitalizations.
NasoVAX, an adenovirus-based intranasal flu vaccine, shows tolerability, safety, and higher cellular immune response compared to an injectable vaccine.
When compared to placebo, baloxavir marboxil was associated with reduced risk of influenza complications and faster recovery.
Findings may highlight physician difficulty explaining to patients why antibiotics are not required.
The use of fluoroquinolones in stable patients with community-acquired pneumonia can be reduced with stewardship programs that share antibiotic use data and provide guidance for step-down therapy.
The FDA has approved Nuzyra for the treatment of adult patients with CABP and acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections.
For patients with CAP, antibiotic regimens including a fluoroquinolone may reduce mortality risk by 1-2% compared to beta-lactams and cephalosporins alone.
Active Choice Intervention Effective in Increasing Influenza Vaccination Rates at Primary Care Practices
Influenza vaccination rates decline as the clinic day progresses.
Patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome and confirmed influenza diagnosis treated ≤6 hours with oseltamivir had reduced length of hospital stay and a lower rate of mortality.
Wide variations in influenza vaccine coverage have been noted across healthcare personnel based on occupation and worksite.
Previous antibiotic use and mechanical invasive ventilation were risk factors for multidrug-resistant pathogens in hospital-associated or ventilator-associated pneumonia.
Arikayce is intended for oral inhalation use and is administered via the Lamira Nebulizer System only.
The 2017 to 2018 flu strains hit the very young and elderly especially hard.
Mandatory genetic testing may also constitute an undue threat to employee autonomy and privacy.
Patients with community-acquired pneumonia who received corticosteroids had a lower incidence of myocardial infarction compared with those who did not.
The Breakthrough designation follows an FDA examination of results from a Phase 2 randomized, double-blind trial which evaluated the safety and immunogenicity of the treatment in adults aged 60 to 64 years.
Vaccination rates decreased throughout the day; with intervention, there was a similar increase throughout day.
The data showed matched odds ratio for current vs past use of PPIs to be 0.88 (95% CI, 0.36 to 2.16) when comparing cases and their controls for community-acquired pneumonia. With regard to lower respiratory tract infections, the matched odds ratio between cases and their controls was 1.13 (95% CI, 0.87 to 1.48).
Factors predictive of escalated care in infant bronchiolitis include oxygen saturation <90%, nasal flaring/grunting, apnea, retractions, and age 2 months or younger.
The full findings from the study will be presented at a future scientific conference; Merck plans to include the data in a supplemental New Drug Application for Zerbaxa which will be submitted to the Food and Drug Administration.
New York City health officials say passengers had influenza or other common cold viruses.
Corticosteroids should not be used concomitantly with antiviral therapy in patients with influenza pneumonia.
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the 2017-2018 flu season was one of the most severe - excluding pandemics - on record.
Baloxavir had a median time to alleviation of symptoms vs placebo, and a similar alleviation time as oseltamivir.
Influenza proved to be an independent risk factor for invasive pulmonary aspergillosis.
The clinical prediction tool that uses confusion, uremia, elevated respiratory rate, and hypotension in community-acquired pneumonia demonstrated an association with ICU admittance.
An algorithm based on risk factors for resistant pathogens and illness severity can simplify pneumonia treatment, improve the accuracy of empiric therapy, reduce mortality, and help avoid overusing broad spectrum therapy in some patients.
Rate of incident pneumonia increased in second year after initiating treatment with proton pump inhibitors.
Coal workers' pneumoconiosis deaths significantly decreased from 1999 to 2016 for residents ≥25 years.
Antibiotics were helpful in curing chronic wet cough in children.
In general, routine annual vaccination is recommended for all patients ≥6 months of age who have no contraindications.
An investigation into an outbreak of NDM-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae across 2 Belgian hospitals identified an outpatient clinic as the likely common site of transfer and highlights the importance of infection control measures in outpatient settings.
Bronchiolitis obliterans is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the pulmonary transplant population with ≥50% of patients who receive a lung transplant developing the condition within 5 years.
The Committee's recommendation was based on data from the omadacycline global development program that included nearly 2000 adults in three Phase 3 studies.
The recommendation was supported by materials developed from the ALIS New Drug Application (NDA), which included data from the CONVERT study.
Hospitalization risk was also reduced for RA patients who received influenza vaccination.
Inappropriate antibiotic prescriptions were highest among urgent care facilities (45.7%), with emergency departments (24.6%), medical offices (17.0%), and retail clinics (14.4%) following.
Immune priming with seasonal H1N1 viruses earlier in life and egg-adaptation in vaccines can impact antibody responses following influenza vaccination.
Most children who died of pneumococcus and Haemophilus influenzae type b presented with pneumonia.
Advanced diagnostic platforms to identify viruses can help patients with severe lower respiratory tract infections avoid unnecessary diagnostic testing, reduce antibiotic use, and initiate antiviral therapy.
To investigate what impact antibiotic treatment duration has on CAP outcomes, researchers from the Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University conducted a search of various databases for studies comparing the safety and efficacy of treatment regimens lasting ≤6 days (short) and ≥7 days (long).
Investigators examined the incidence and outcomes of pneumonia in patients with acute ischemic stroke and type 2 diabetes.
The New Drug Application for baloxavir marboxil is supported by results from the Phase 3 CAPSTONE-1 study (N=1436) which examined the effects of a single dose of baloxavir marboxil vs placebo or oseltamivir 75mg twice daily for 5 days.
Most deaths related to community-acquired pneumonia that occurred at tertiary-case hospitals were not preventable.
Respiratory pathogens were associated with an increased risk for treatment failure in children with asthma exacerbations.
The researchers argued that outpatient antibiotic stewardship efforts must be strengthened to eliminate antibiotic treatment for viral upper respiratory infections and acute bronchitis.
The real-world effectiveness of PCV13 vaccine in preventing hospitalization for vaccine-type community-acquired pneumonia was assessed.
Although clinical presentation was similar in both community-acquired pneumonia and non-pneumonia exacerbations, CRP, glucose, and leukocytes were higher in the former vs the latter.
Early clinical response rates were similar across PORT risk class subgroups in patients with community-acquired bacterial pneumonia when treated with omadacycline or moxifloxacin.
PCV13, marketed as Prevnar 13, was evaluated in a test-negative case-control study in real-world conditions where patients were administered pneumococcal vaccination as advised by their healthcare providers.
The advisory comes early as physicians are currently placing vaccine orders.