Pharmacological Effects of Grapefruit Juice

PHARMACOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF GRAPEFRUIT JUICE WITH MEDICATIONS
Grapefruit or grapefruit juice has been shown to affect the metabolism of many medications, increasing the risk of toxicity and adverse events. Characteristics of oral medications that may interact with grapefruit include extensive metabolism through the intestinal cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) system, low bioavailability, and a narrow therapeutic index. Grapefruit juice interacts through the intestinal CYP3A4 system and can inhibit the concentration for 24–72hrs. Not an exclusive list of medications that may interact with grapefruit. Caution should be taken by both patient and physician and monitor adverse reactions when taking medications that may interact with grapefruit or juice.
Generic Brand Clinical Implications of Co‑administration
with Grapefruit or Grapefruit Juice
ANTI-INFECTIVES
erythromycin Ery-Tab, Eryped, E.E.S. Inhibits CYP3A4-mediated metabolism resulting in increased erythromycin bioavailability.
maraviroc Selzentry May increase plasma concentrations of maraviroc and should be avoided.
praziquantel Biltricide 1.6-fold increase in the Cmax and a 1.9-fold increase in the AUC of praziquantel. The effect of this increase on the efficacy and safety of praziquantel has not been systemically evaluated.
primaquine phosphate Primaquine Increases bioavailability of primaquine resulting in increased adverse effects. Avoid co-administration.
rilpivirine Edurant May increase plasma concentrations of rilpivirine and should be avoided.
CARDIOVASCULAR AGENTS
amiodarone Inhibits CYP3A4-mediated metabolism of oral amiodarone resulting in increase plasma levels of amiodarone. Avoid co‑administration.
apixaban Eliquis May moderately inhibit CYP3A4-mediated metabolism of apixaban. If co-administration is necessary, use with caution.
atorvastatin Lipitor Inhibits CYP3A4 and can increase plasma concentrations of atorvastatin, especially with excessive grapefruit juice consumption (>1.2L/day).
clopidogrel Plavix May impair the efficacy of clopidogrel. Avoid co-administration.
dofetilide Tikosyn Inhibitor of the CYP3A4 isoenzyme, thus could increase systemic dofetilide exposure. If co-administration is necessary, use with caution.
dronedarone Multaq Moderate inhibitor of CYP3A, results in a 3-fold increase in dronedarone exposure and a 2.5-fold increase in Cmax. Avoid co-administration.
eplerenone Inspra May increase plasma concentrations of eplerenone resulting in hyperkalemia and serious arrhythmias.
felodipine 2-fold increase in felodipine AUC and Cmax with no prolongation of half-life. Avoid co-administration prior to and during treatment.
lovastatin Inhibits CYP3A4 and can increase plasma concentrations of lovastatin. Avoid co-administration.
nifedipine Procardia 2-fold increase in nifedipine AUC and Cmax with no change in half-life. Avoid co-administration.
nisoldipine Sular 3-fold increase in nisoldipine Cmax and 2-fold increase in nisoldipine AUC. Avoid co-administration.
simvastatin Zocor Inhibits CYP3A4 and can increase plasma concentrations of simvastatin and may increase risk of myopathy. Avoid co-administration.
verapamil Verelan May significantly increase concentrations of verapamil. Increased S-and R-verapamil AUC0-12 by 36% and 28%, respectively. Steady state Cmax and Cmin of S-verapamil increased by 57% and 16.7%, respectively compared to control. Cmax and Cmin of R-verapamil increased by 40% and 13%, respectively. No clinical consequences expected.
ticagrelor Brilinta Increases ticagrelor exposure by more than 2-fold, resulting to an enhanced and prolonged antiplatelet effect.
IMMUNOSUPRESSANTS
cyclosporine Neoral Affects metabolism and increases blood concentrations of cyclosporine. Avoid co-administration.
everolimus Zortress Inhibits CYP3A4 and P-gp activity and should therefore be avoided.
sirolimus Rapamune Reduces CYP3A4-mediated drug metabolism and must not be taken with or used for dilution of sirolimus.
tacrolimus Prograf Inhibits CYP3A-mediated metabolism resulting in increased tacrolimus whole blood trough concentrations. Avoid co-administration.
ONCOLOGY AGENTS
axitinib Inlyta May increase plasma concentrations of axitinib and should be avoided.
crizotinib Xalkori May increase plasma concentrations of crizotinib and should be avoided.
dasatinib Sprycel May increase plasma concentrations of dasatinib and should be avoided.
erlotinib Tarceva May increase plasma concentrations of erlotinib and should be avoided.
everolimus Afinitor May increase exposures of everolimus and should be avoided.
lapatanib Tykerb May increase plasma concentrations of lapatinib and should be avoided.
nilotinib Tasigna May increase plasma concentrations of nilotinib and should be avoided.
pazopanib Votrient May increase plasma concentrations of pazopanib and should be avoided.
ruxolitinib Jakafi The recommended starting dose of ruxolitinib is 10mg twice daily for patients with a platelet count ≥100 × 109/L. Concurrent administration of ruxolitinib should be avoided in patients with platelet counts <100 × 109/L.
sunitinib Sutent May increase plasma concentrations of sunitinib and should be avoided.
vandetanib Caprelsa May increase plasma concentrations of vandetanib and should be avoided.
vemurafenib Zelboraf May increase plasma concentrations of vemurafenib and should be avoided.
PAIN MEDICATIONS
dihydroergotamine mesylate D.H.E. 45 A potential risk for serious toxicity (including vasospasm) exists.
ergotamine tartrate + caffeine A potential risk for serious toxicity (including vasospasm) exists.
fentanyl (oral) Fentora May result in a potentially dangerous increase in plasma concentrations, which could increase or prolong adverse drug effects and may cause potentially fatal respiratory depression.
oxycodone Oxycontin May result in a potentially dangerous increase in plasma concentrations, which could increase or prolong adverse drug effects and may cause potentially fatal respiratory depression.
PSYCHOTROPIC AGENTS
buspirone 4.3 fold increase in Cmax; 9.2 fold increase in AUC. Avoid drinking large amounts (200mL double-strength 3 times daily) of grapefruit juice.
lurasidone Latuda May increase plasma concentrations of lurasidone resulting in increased adverse effects.
pimozide Inhibits CYP3A4-mediated metabolism of pimozide. Avoid co-administration.
quetiapine Seroquel May increase plasma concentrations of quetiapine resulting in increased adverse effects.
triazolam Halcion Increases the Cmax of triazolam by 25%, increases AUC by 48%, and increases half-life by 18%. Avoid co-administration.
ziprasidone Geodon May increase plasma concentrations of ziprasidone resulting in increased adverse effects.
UROLOGIC AGENTS
tadalafil Cialis Likely increases of tadalafil exposure.
vardenafil Staxyn Increased systemic concentration of vardenafil. Avoid co-administration.
OTHERS
budesonide Entocort EC After extensive intake of grapefruit juice, the systemic exposure for oral budesonide increased about 2 times. Ingestion of grapefruit or grapefruit juice should be avoided.
cilostazol Increase in the Cmax of cilostazol by ~ 50%, but has no effect on AUC. Avoid or reduce dose to 50mg with co-administration.
colchicine Colcrys Increases the risk of colchicine-induced toxic effects; significant increase in colchicine plasma concentration is anticipated. Grapefruit and grapefruit juice should not be consumed during colchicine treatment.
dextromethorphan Robitussin Increases bioavailability of dextromethorphan resulting in increased adverse effects.
fexofenadine Allegra May reduce bioavailability and exposure of fexofenadine. In a bioequivalence study, the bioavailability of fexofenadine was reduced by 36%. Take with water.
ivacaftor Kalydeco Co-administration may increase exposure of ivacaftor. Grapefruit or Seville oranges should be avoided during treatment.
tolvaptan Samsca Co-administration results in a 1.8-fold increase in exposure to tolvaptan.
REFERENCES

Bailey DG, Dresser G, Arnold JMO. Grapefruit–medication interactions: Forbidden fruit or avoidable consequences? CMAJ. 2013 March 05; 185(4): 309-316. doi: https://doi.org/10.1503/cmaj.120951.
Stump AL, Mayo T, Blum A. Management of Grapefruit-Drug Interactions. Am Fam Physician. 2006 Aug 15; 74(4): 605-608.

(Rev. 1/2021)

This article originally appeared on MPR